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The term semiosis was coined in the 1860’s by the famed American philosopher and logician Charles Sanders Peirce (pronounced "purse"). Semiosis ultimately refers to the physical process by which meaningful information is exchanged within the living world. In general terms, semiosis exist anytime one thing represents or signifies another thing.

Originally, the term referred mostly to the information that appeared in human language and culture, but research has demonstrated that semiosis exist throughout the living kingdom. And with the discovery of the genetic code in the 1960's, science has now demonstrated that semiosis was the fundamental material requirement at the origin of life itself. The updated term “biosemiosis” reflects a modern recognition that life and semiosis are coextensive – they exist together and never apart.

Semiosis at the origin of life is one of mankind’s most profound scientific discoveries. It is made even more profound because of the particular type of semiotic system found in the living cell. There are two distinct categories of semiotic systems. One category uses representations where the arrangement of the medium (like a pheromone) is reducible to the physical properties of the medium itself; the other uses representations that have a spatial (dimensional) orientation and are not reducible to their physical make-up (like the words on this page). The first type is found throughout the living kingdom. The second type is found nowhere but in recorded language and mathematics  (and in the genetic code).

This leads to an undeniable observation of physical reality; the singularly-unique material conditions required for dimensional semiosis, which would ostensibly not exist on Earth until the rise of human intelligence, were entirely evident at the very origin of life. They are the physical means by which the living cell became organized.

 

 

 

The Information Tetrahedron is a visual aid for understanding translation. It is a model of the material conditions required to translate any form of recorded information, including the information recorded in DNA. The translation of an informational medium enables the production of effects that are not determined by the material properties of the medium being translated. Instead, those effects are determined elsewhere within the system of translation. This relational architecture – with one arrangement of matter evoking an effect, while another arrangement of matter determines what the effect will be – establishes a physical discontinuity in the system. This discontinuity enables prescriptive control of effects that are not limited by local dynamics. Such effects can only be derived from the contingent organization of the individual systems that translate information.

The products of these systems include communication, sensory perception, replication, homeostasis, evolution, and culture. These examples reflect the entirety of the living kingdom, and are completely absent in the remaining inanimate world.                                    

See also:  An Easy Understanding of Semiosis

 

 
NOTES:
  • The information tetrahedron describes the necessary material conditions of translation.
  • The organization of the system establishes a relationship across the discontinuity between the arrangement of a medium and its post-translation effect.
  • This discontinuity is a physical necessity because inexorable law would otherwise limit the system to only those effects that are derivable from the physical properties of the medium. In contrast, an organization capable of discontinuous translation is limited only (in principle) by what is physically possible.
  • This greatly expanded set of possibilities is the physicochemical basis of both the origin and diversity of form in the living kingdom.
  • Because the effects of translation are not locally determined by inexorable law, they are subject to error, change, and noise.
  • A rational distinction is therefore made between the functional and non-functional output of semiotic systems.
  • Functional products are described as being the result of information; non-functional products are generally described as being the result of error and noise.

 

 

The Basics

In all living things, proteins are the workhorses inside the cell. They build structures, regulate processes, transport materials, and take part in virtually every function of cellular life. Well over 100,000 different types of proteins have been found in the living kingdom, and each of them is created by using just 20 different types of amino acids arranged as building blocks in a particular order. Changing the order of the amino acids changes the type of protein being created, and while an average protein might be made up of 200-400 amino acids, others have thousands. Living cells know how to arrange the order of these amino acids by reading the information encoded in their DNA.

In order to encode this information, four different types of nucleic acids (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine – A,T,G,C) are used to form individual representations called “codons”. A codon can be thought of as a "code word" inside the cell. Each of these code words is made up of three nucleic acids (triplets) which are read together as a single representation. For instance, the triplet TAC is translated by the cell to add an amino acid called tyrosine to a new protein being created. CTA means add leucine, GTC means add valine, CCG means add proline, GAC means add aspartic acid, and so on. This is how the cell builds every protein in the living world - it uses a code.

 

The Input of Information

When the cell manufactures a new protein, it starts the process by locating the correct segment of its DNA for building that particular protein. The sequence of codons in that segment are then copied into a secondary mobile medium called "messenger" RNA (mRNA). When the information is copied into RNA, the nucleic acid thymine is substituted with another nucleic acid called uracil, but the pattern of the codons remains the same. This RNA copy is then matured and transported to the site of protein assembly, which is a molecular structure called a ribosome. Upon entering the ribosome, the sequence of codons in the messenger RNA are used to arrange the order of another set of RNA molecules called "transfer" RNA. These tRNA carry with them the individual amino acids that will be used to build the protein.

In short, the information in DNA is first copied into mRNA, and the mRNA is then used to order tRNA (with their amino acids in tow) in the same sequence as it existed in the original DNA. After all the amino acids are bound together in the right sequence, the chain of amino acids is then folded up into the protein that the cell needs to survive.

  

The Point of Translation

The input of information into the ribosome results in amino acids being attached together in a sequence prescribed by the DNA. Each critical step in this process is controlled by purely mechanical (deterministic) forces. However, in order for the genetic system to translate the form of a protein through the medium of nucleotides, the system cannot rely on deterministic forces alone to achieve that result.

To achieve translation, a set of arbitrary relationships must be established in the operation of the system, and these relationships can only exist if the various codons are mapped to their amino acids while the discontinuity (i.e. the arbitrariness) between them is preserved. This requires the system to be organized in a specific way to bring those relationships into being. Inside the cell, this organization is accomplished by isolating the establishment of the code from the translation of the codons.

In the genetic translation system, the relationships that make up the genetic code are established by a very special set of twenty complex proteins called aminoacyl tRNA synthetase (aaRS). The aaRS are the physical protocols in the genetic translation system. It is their job to load the correct amino acids to each of the tRNAs, and they accomplish this task prior to the tRNA ever entering the ribosome. Therefore the establishment of the genetic code is both spatially and temporally isolated from the remaining translation process. One process (the input of form) is functionally coordinated with the other process (the establishment of an effect) yet the two processes remain independent. The contingent organization of the system thereby establishes the genetic code while maintaining the discontinuity that is vital to its function.

 


 

Summary

A living cell is a heterogeneous system. It requires discrete parts in order to function, and reproduces itself by means of prescriptive synthesis. This process requires the translation of an informational medium. The minimum requirements for the origin of the system are therefore established by what is physically necessary to record and translate the amount of information that the system needs to successfully describe itself into memory.

A physical analysis of the system makes explicit what those requirements are.

The necessary material conditions of genetic translation are found to be exclusively identifiable among all other physical systems. They can be identified nowhere else in the physical world except in recorded language and mathematics – two universal correlates of intelligence.

 


 Watch a Video of the Process  (2.5 min)